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考研英语翻译技巧之被动语态
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一、译成汉语主动句   保存原文主语   The meeting is scheduled for April 6th.   会议定于四月六日举行。   Water can be changed from a liquid into a solid.   水能从液体变成固体。   When rust is formed , a chemical change has taken place.   当锈形成的时候,就发生了化学变化。   主宾颠倒   She was given a new pen by her father.   她爸爸送给她一支新钢笔。   Heat and light can be given off by this chemical change.   这种化学反应能放出热和光。   Only a small portion of solar energy is now being used by us.   现在我们只能利用一小部分太阳能。   Communication satellites have already been used for living transmission in our country.   我国已将通讯卫星用于实况转播。   The numerical data concerned are provided in the next chapter.   下一章提供了有关的数据资料。   增加主语   The issue has not yet been thoroughly explored.   人们对这一问题迄今尚未进行过彻底的探索。   She was seen to enter the building about the time the crime was committed.   有人看见她大致在案发时进入了那座建筑物。   What we say here will not be long remembered, but what we do here can change the world.   我们在这里所讲的话,人们不会长久记住。然而我们在这儿所做的事,却能改变世界。   二、译成汉语无主句   Measures have been taken to prevent the epidemic from spreading quickly.   已经采取了措施来防止这种流行病迅速蔓延。   Water can be shown as containing impurities.   可以证明,水含有杂质。   The unpleasant noise must be immediately put an end.   必须全部停止这种讨厌的噪声。   三、译成汉语判断句   The decision to attack was not taken lightly.   进攻的决定不是轻易作出的。   Printing was introduced into Europe from China.   印刷术是从中国传入欧洲的。   The manuscript was sent to the printer in London a few weeks before the French revolution.   手稿是在法国革命前几周寄往伦敦付印的。   The credit system in America was first adopted by Harvard University in 1872.   美国的学分制是1872年在哈佛大学首先实施的。   四、译成汉语被动句   使用“被、受、遭、让、给、由、把、得到、受到、加以、得以、为...所、由...来”等等。   The minister was found to have appropriated government money.   部长被发现挪用公款。   He had been fired for refusing to obey orders from the head office.   他因拒绝接受总公司的命令而被解雇了。   The schoolboy was knocked down by a minibus when crossing the street.   那名男生在穿过街道时让一辆小公共汽车撞倒了。   He was praised by his teacher.   他得到了老师的表扬。   Problems should be resolved in good time.   问题应及时加以解决。   For a long period to come, most of China’s elderly will continue to be provided for by their families.   在未来较长的一段时间里,中国的老年人仍旧要由家庭来赡养。   五、常用被动句型“It+被动语态+that”的翻译   It is considered that bioclimatology is an involved subject.   有人认为,生物气候学是一门复杂的学科。   It is stressed that the field of science may be divided into two major areas: natural science and social science.   有人强调说,科学的范畴可以分成两个主要领域:自然科学和社会科学。   It should be pointed out that this process is oxidation.   应该指出,这一过程就是氧化。
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