当前位置:主页>翻译漫谈> 翻译漫谈(十三)汉译英:基本功
翻译漫谈(十三)汉译英:基本功
来源:作者:本站
    最近我看了一本用英文出版的论文集,是介绍我国改革开放的情况的。书中共有文章18篇,其中13篇有译者署名,并经8人审阅,其余5篇没有译者署名,可能是作者自译,也许是直接用英文写的。
    这18篇文章均出自相关领域的专家学者之手,专业性比较强,要译好,或者要评论译文的优劣,必须有相关的知识。我们不具备这样的条件,而且我们只见到译文而见不到原文,因此我们只能就译文本身提出一些看法。
    一.名词与冠词
    1. Over long period of time in our country, state enterprise is a main provider in respect to financial income of nation.
        2. Those belonged to the latter approach pay much more attentions to the individuals.
        3. ... in term of both economics and environment.
        4. In other word, what do we think...?
        5. The actual situation is far from such a simple.
        6. In addition, the development of economy always has periods of rise as well as fall.
        7. Since 1990’s, “globalization” has almost become an “everyday word” of the mass media in various countries.
        8. Those suffering more have to ask for aids from IMF and some western countries like U.S.
        9. On June 5,1972 in Stockholm, United Nations held its first UN conference on Human Settlement, for the first time raising human environment issue into the agenda of international politics.
       10....capacity building thus becomes an only effective approach to sustainable development.
    英语的名词分可数名词和不可数名词,而且往往要和冠词连用。例1中的period, enterprise和nation都是可数名词。period在这里是泛指,没有说是哪一段时间,因此要加不定冠词,说a long period of time。enterprise在这里也是泛指,泛指往往用复数,或用单数加定冠词,表明这一类的东西,因此这里要说state enterprises,或the state enterprise, 既不用复数又不用冠词是不行的。nation在这里专指我国,一定要加定冠词,说the nation。例9中的issue也是专指,要加定冠词。
    英语有些名词既可用作可数名词,也可用作不可数名词。如preparation(s),negotiation(s),experience(s),success(es)等。这两种用法,其含义有时无大差异,有时略有不同。例2中的attention一词就属于后一种情况。据词典解释,attentions作为可数名词的复数,意思是things that sb does to try to please you or to show their interest in you。因此,例2只能用attention,不能用其复数形式。
    英语有些短语是非常固定的,叫做idioms,不能轻易改动,如in terms of,in other words,等等。因此,例3和例4中用名词的单数形式是不行的。
上一页12 3 4 5 6 下一页