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本地化关键概念
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Standardization
=标准化=

When two or more entities interact, common conventions are important. Car drivers must abide by traffic rules to prevent accidents. People need common conventions on languages and gestures to communicate. Likewise, software needs standards and protocols to interoperate seamlessly. In terms of software engineering, contracts between parts of programs need to be established before implementation. The contracts are most important for systems developed by a large group of individual developers from different backgrounds, and are extremely essential for cross-platform interoperability.

两个或者更多的团体进行交流时,重要的是使用同样的方式。汽车司机要遵守交通规则才能避免事故。人们需要共同的语言和手势习惯才能沟通。类似地,软件需要标准和协议来实现无缝的协作。在软件工程中,程序的不同部分需要在实现前预先确定协调方法。由具有不同背景的许多单个开发者组成的大团体开发的系统中协议尤其重要,而且对跨平台的协作能力是极为必要的。

Standards provide such contracts for all computing systems in the world. Software developers need to conform to such conventions to prevent miscommunication. Therefore, standardization should be the very first step for any kind of software development, including localization.

标准为世界上所有计算系统提供了这样的协议。软件开发者需要遵循这些标准以避免沟通的障碍。因此,对于包括本地化在内的任何类型的软件开发,标准化都应该是第一步。

To start localization, it is a good idea to study related standards and use them throughout the project. Nowadays, many international standards and specifications have been developed to cover the languages of the world. If these do not fit the project's needs, one may consider participating in standardization activities. Important sources are:

要开始本地化,一个好办法是研究相关的标准,并在项目中自始至终使用这些标准。现在,人们开发了许多国际标准和技术指标以覆盖世界各地的语言。如果这些标准不符合项目的需要,可以考虑参与标准化活动。重要的标准来源包括:

ISO/IEC JTC1 (International Organization for Standardization and International Electrotechnical Commission Joint Technical Committee 1): A joint technical committee for international standards for information technology. There are many subcommittees (SC) for different categories, under which working groups (WG) are formed to work on subcategories of standards. For example, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2 is the working group for Universal Coded Character Set (UCS). The standardization process, however, proceeds in a closed manner. If the national standard body is an ISO/IEC member, it can propose the requirements for the project. Otherwise, one may need to approach individual committees. They may ask for participation as a specialist. Information for JTC1/SC2 (coded character sets) is published at anubis.dkuug.dk/JTC1/SC2. Information for JTC1/SC22 (programming languages, their environments and system software interfaces) is at anubis.dkuug.dk/JTC1/SC22.
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